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[7] The reverberations from Father Divine’s remarriage to Edna Rose Ritchings, forever after known as Mother Divine, and her subsequent assumption of the helm of the Peace Mission, serve as important issues for those who decided to leave the Peace Mission for Peoples Temple. On its origin in the Peace Mission due to the impact of the New Thought influence and teachings in the Movement early on, see Watts, 23.By raising the public contradiction of the death of a high profile Divinite – i.e., the original Mother Divine – and recasting it as a purposeful reincarnation, Father Divine laid not only a reconsideration for the future interpretations of deaths among his followers as “reincarnations,” but also he unwittingly laid the groundwork and conceptual ideological/theological rational that Jim Jones would later use and some Divinites would accept, as he began his quest to succeed Father Divine. On Father Divine’s expected reincarnation by his followers, see Mother Divine, 102-103; Watts, 173; Robert Weisbrot, Father Divine (Boston: Beacon Press, 1984) and Weisbrot, Father Divine: Religious Leader (New York: Chelsea House, 1992); and Chapter 27, “African-American Freedom movements” in Michael Ashcraft and Dereck Daschke, eds., New Religious Movements: A Documentary Reader (New York, NYU Press, 2005), 289.[3] Although beyond the scope of this paper, this dynamic is an important backdrop to understand what is discussed here. [7] Mabee is an excellent source for the documentation on the decline of the Peace Mission Movement.And as far as this researcher has ascertained, although one Black male and possibly more than one white female were among them the majority of former Divinites turned People Temple members were Black women. See section E, “Slowing Down,” 199-223 (especially note 41); “Decline and Succession,” 207- 214 (esp. Mabee dates the beginning of the Peace Mission’s “decline” as 1941. On Father Divine’s rationalizations and interpretation of Peninnah Divine’s death and reincarnation, which serves as a core rationalization of the post-1965 leadership of the Peace Mission by Sweet Angel (Mother) Divine, see Harris, 243-246; Watts, 168-169; and Mabee, 118-119.As such, missing from her account, but implied, was Jones’ very real success in luring some of Father Divine’s followers away from the Peace Mission and into Peoples Temple. Black, The Three Virtual Intentional Communities Of God In A Body In Real Time (1868-2008), 2009.

Her previous writings can be found here.) On November 18, 1978, the largest mass death of a group of US citizens to that date occurred at the Peoples Temple Agricultural Settlement, better known as Jonestown.

Dissension in the ranks of the Peace Mission as Mother goes from Elderly and Black to Young and White. [8] On the lasting negative impact and dissension towards and resentment of Edna Rose Ritchings, first in 1946 as the new “Mother,” then in 1965 as the new “leader” of the Peace Mission among some followers, see J. On Jim Jones’ use of this rationale to be “Father” in the “second body” and, thus, in effect having “Father” go from “elderly and Black” to “young and white” in 1965, just as “Mother” Divine had in 1943, see, E.

Throughout its history, the Peace Mission suffered dissension. Black, Three Virtual Intentional Communities, and Tim Reiterman with John Jacobs, Raven: The Untold Story of the Rev.

What were the similarities and differences in life at the Mission and in the Temple? Glaude Jr., eds., African American Religious Thought: An Anthology (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 2003), 581-587.

How were these former Divinites received once they accepted Jones as leader? For black female demographics in Peoples Temple, see Rebecca Moore, “Demographics and the Black Religious Culture of Peoples Temple” in Rebecca Moore, Anthony B. Sawyer, eds., Peoples Temple and Black Religion in America (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2004), 57-80, esp. On the first Mother Divine of the Peace Mission Movement, a black woman named Peninnah Divine, see Carleton Mabee, Promised Land: Father Divine’s Interracial Communities in Ulster County, New York (Fleischmanns, NY: Purple Mountain Press, 2008), 116.

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